Tutorial GWT Request Factory – Part I

by Stefan

Update 30.12.2012: All examples are reviewed and updated to GWT 2.5. Enjoy!
Update 24.09.2011:
I finally managed to push the complete tutorial project to github. It is based on GWT 2.4. 2.5. Looking forward to your feedback.

The first part of this tutorial describes how to set up a Request Factory (RF) based client-server communication in GWT. In contrast to the example at GWT home, a classic DAO pattern is used at the server-side with a clear separation between entity (passive, stateful) and dao/service (active, stateless). As this is not the default way, some additional helper classes (“locators”) need to be implemented. However, I think the benefit of a cleaner architecture is worth the price of some additional lines of code.

The second part will deal with testing RF-based classes in the GWT client.

Prerequisites

You should have the GWT SDK installed and a GWT compatible project in the IDE of your choice available. To make the example run you need some additional libraries on the classpath:

  • org.json.*
  • a JSR 303 Bean Validation implementation, e.g. hibernate-validator

When using Maven, simply add these dependencies:

<dependency>
    <groupId>org.json</groupId>
    <artifactId>json</artifactId>
    <version>20090211</version>
</dependency>

<!-- Validation API -->
<dependency>
    <groupId>javax.validation</groupId>
    <artifactId>validation-api</artifactId>
    <version>1.0.0.GA</version>
</dependency>

<!-- Validation Implementation -->
<dependency>
 <groupId>org.hibernate</groupId>
 <artifactId>hibernate-validator</artifactId>
 <version>4.3.0.Final</version>
</dependency>

<!-- Need some logging provider for SLF4J -->
<dependency>
 <groupId>ch.qos.logback</groupId>
 <artifactId>logback-classic</artifactId>
 <version>0.9.30</version>
</dependency>

Without Maven you can use gwt-servlet-deps.jar from the GWT SDK (containing the JSON packages) and download the hibernate-validator jar with its dependencies.

Server-side model

First of all, let’s have a look at the server-side model which consists of two entities and a DAO.

package cleancodematters.server.domain;

import java.util.List;

public class Pizza {
  private Long id;
  private Long version;
  private String name;
  private List<Ingredient> ingredients;

  /* Getters and Setters */
}
package cleancodematters.server.domain;

public class Ingredient {
  private String name;
  private boolean vegan;

  /* Getters and Setters */
}
package cleancodematters.server;

import cleancodematters.server.domain.Pizza;

public class PizzaDao {

  public void save( Pizza pizza ) {
    // save pizza instance
  }

  public Pizza findById( Long id ) {
    // look-up pizza instance
    return null;
  }
}

In a real world scenario, the entities could be JPA-managed @Entitys, whereas the DAO could be a Spring @Repository with an EntityContext being injected.

Client-side model

In general it’s a good idea to not use back-end entities in the presentation layer as this breaks encapsulation. Normally, DTOs are created which are converted at the back-end’s external interface. With GWT RF this conversion is done automatically. All you need to do is to create an interface for each entity and define the needed getters and setters. All methods are mapped by naming conventions, i.e. their names must be identical.

There are two types of proxy entities so there are two base interfaces:

  • EntityProxy is used for entities with an identity concept
  • ValueProxy is used for all others. In fact, ValueProxy can be used to transfer any data between client and server.

Consequently, Pizza is an entity proxy whereas ingredient is a value proxy as ingredients are always attached to a pizza (in the true sense of the word).

package cleancodematters.client;

import java.util.List;

import cleancodematters.server.domain.Pizza;

import com.google.web.bindery.requestfactory.shared.EntityProxy;
import com.google.web.bindery.requestfactory.shared.ProxyFor;

@ProxyFor(value = Pizza.class)
public interface PizzaProxy extends EntityProxy {
  public Long getId();

  public String getName();
  public void setName( String name );

  public List<IngredientProxy> getIngredients();
  public void setIngredients( List<IngredientProxy> ingredients );
}
package cleancodematters.client;

import cleancodematters.server.domain.Ingredient;

import com.google.web.bindery.requestfactory.shared.ProxyFor;
import com.google.web.bindery.requestfactory.shared.ValueProxy;

@ProxyFor(value = Ingredient.class)
public interface IngredientProxy extends ValueProxy {
  public String getName();
  public void setName( String name );

  public boolean isVegan();
  public void setVegan( boolean vegan );
}

Two more things to mention:

  • The static mapping of proxy interface to backend entity is done using the @ProxyFor annotation.
  • When referencing associated types, the proxy interface is used (IngredientProxy instead of Ingredient)

Entity locator

By default, a couple of methods are expected to be existent in the backend entity for EntityProxies, e.g. findById. As we want to deal with pure pojos, a Locator class needs to be specified which is used by the RF for entity management. The locator can be specified within the @ProxyFor annotation as an optional argument:

import cleancodematters.server.PizzaLocator;

@ProxyFor(value = Pizza.class, locator = PizzaLocator.class)
public interface PizzaProxy extends EntityProxy {
// ...

The implementation of is straight forward as method names provided by the Locator interface are self-explanatory.

package cleancodematters.server;

import cleancodematters.server.domain.Pizza;

import com.google.web.bindery.requestfactory.shared.Locator;

public class PizzaLocator extends Locator<Pizza, Long>{

  @Override
  public Pizza create( Class<? extends Pizza> clazz ) {
    return new Pizza();
  }

  @Override
  public Pizza find( Class<? extends Pizza> clazz, Long id ) {
    return getPizzaDao().findById( id );
  }

  private PizzaDao getPizzaDao() {
    return new PizzaDao();
  }

  @Override
  public Class<Pizza> getDomainType() {
    return Pizza.class;
  }

  @Override
  public Long getId( Pizza domainObject ) {
    return domainObject.getId();
  }

  @Override
  public Class<Long> getIdType() {
    return Long.class;
  }

  @Override
  public Object getVersion( Pizza domainObject ) {
    return domainObject.getVersion();
  }
}

Request Factory and Request Context

Now we have the back-end entity mapped and need some API in the GWT client that allows sending requests to the server. Again, we only define two interfaces, one extends RequestFactory and another extends RequestContext. The latter provides an abstraction of a single client-server request and consequently defines the methods that we want to call.

package cleancodematters.client;

import cleancodematters.server.PizzaDao;

import com.google.web.bindery.requestfactory.shared.Request;
import com.google.web.bindery.requestfactory.shared.RequestContext;
import com.google.web.bindery.requestfactory.shared.RequestFactory;
import com.google.web.bindery.requestfactory.shared.Service;

public interface PizzaRequestFactory extends RequestFactory {

  @Service(value = PizzaDao.class)
  public interface PizzaRequestContext extends RequestContext {
    Request<PizzaProxy> findById( Long id );
    Request<Void> save( PizzaProxy pizza );
  }

  PizzaRequestContext context();
}

Methods are mapped by naming convention, again. However, there are two differences:

  • ProxyEntities (PizzaProxy) instead of back end entities (Pizza) are used.
  • The return type for each method is wrapped within a Request class to represent the asynchronous nature of the communication.

The mapping between RequestContext and DAO is done in the @Service annotation. By default, all methods are expected to be static in the given server class. To change this, a ServiceLocator needs to be defined that performs a service lookup and returns a concrete DAO instance.

First, again the locator needs to be registered in the @Service annotation:

  @Service(value = PizzaDao.class, locator = DaoLocator.class)
  public interface PizzaRequestContext extends RequestContext {
//...

A very simple implementation may look like this:

package cleancodematters.server;

import com.google.web.bindery.requestfactory.shared.ServiceLocator;

public class DaoLocator implements ServiceLocator {

  @Override
  public Object getInstance( Class<?> clazz ) {
    // Create dao. Instance is cached by GWT so make sure the implementation is stateless.
    return new PizzaDao();
  }
}

RequestFactory and Spring

When using Spring, the ServiceLocator can perform a lookup in the current application context for the given class type. Here’s an example:

package cleancodematters.server;

import javax.servlet.ServletContext;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;

import org.springframework.context.ApplicationContext;
import org.springframework.web.context.support.WebApplicationContextUtils;

import com.google.web.bindery.requestfactory.server.RequestFactoryServlet;
import com.google.web.bindery.requestfactory.shared.ServiceLocator;

public class WebApplicationContextServiceLocator implements ServiceLocator {

  @Override
  public Object getInstance( Class<?> clazz ) {
    HttpServletRequest request = RequestFactoryServlet.getThreadLocalRequest();
    ServletContext servletContext = request.getSession().getServletContext();
    ApplicationContext context = WebApplicationContextUtils.getWebApplicationContext( servletContext );
    return context.getBean( clazz );
  }
}

Besides the ServiceLocator, the EntityLocator can be implemented generically, too, to deal with any entity. You can use reflection to create instances and to retrieve a value for version and id.

After completing this tutorial, the client and server package should look similar to this screen:

Overview Request Factory classes

Order a pizza

Finally, here’s a snippet that shows how to create a RequestFactory instance and to make a request to the server:

        PizzaRequestFactory factory = GWT.create( PizzaRequestFactory.class );
        factory.initialize( new SimpleEventBus() );
        PizzaRequestContext context = factory.context();

        PizzaProxy pizza = context.create( PizzaProxy.class );
        pizza.setName( "Funghi" );
        IngredientProxy cheese = context.create( IngredientProxy.class );
        cheese.setName( "Cheese" );
        cheese.setVegan( false );
        pizza.setIngredients( Arrays.asList( cheese ) );

        context.save( pizza ).fire();

You can pull the complete code embedded in an example project from github.

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57 Comments to “Tutorial GWT Request Factory – Part I”

  1. Thank you. That was just the tutorial that I’ve been waiting for. There are bits and pieces of this material strewn across the Internet in various places, but you’ve brought it together nicely for those of us who don’t have time to dig it all up. Tweeting about it now. @dpinn

    • Thanks David. I just updated the post with an example on how to return a Spring managed bean in the service locator (as according to the search terms this seems to be of general interest).

  2. Thanks a lot)Its cool tutorial of requestfactory using!

  3. Thanks very good tutorial.

  4. Hi, your tutorial runs very good, but i have a question : How can i write a entity locator for all my entities ?
    public class EntityLocator extends Locator{

    }
    instead
    public class PizzaLocator extends Locator{

    }
    Thanks.

  5. Thanks – quite good tutorial!

    Espacially the point with the Dependency-Injection is nice!
    I solved it with Guice instead of Spring (because we use Guice at out project) in a quite similar way:

    public class GuiceServiceLocator implements ServiceLocator {

    @Override
    public Object getInstance(Class clazz) {
    HttpServletRequest request = RequestFactoryServlet.getThreadLocalRequest();
    ServletContext servletContext = request.getSession().getServletContext();

    /* during the GuiceServletContextListener the Injector is sticked to the ServletContext with the attribute name Injector.class.getName()*/
    Injector injector = (Injector) servletContext.getAttribute(Injector.class.getName());

    if (injector == null) {
    throw new IllegalStateException(“No injector found. Must be set as attribute in the servlet context with the name ” + Injector.class.getName());
    }

    // Resolve Binding with Guice
    return injector.getInstance(clazz);
    }
    }

  6. Thanks so much for such a nice article. It does flow very well and is very well written.

    However, I am not very clear on mapping between RequestContext and DAO.

    1) Can I invoke any method on the DAO, through RequestContext at the client end?
    2) In the following method, what would be the clazz I would receive as parameter in your example:

    public class DaoLocator implements ServiceLocator {

    @Override
    public Object getInstance( Class clazz ) {
    // Create dao. Instance is cached by GWT so make sure the implementation is stateless.
    return new PizzaDao();
    }
    }

    3) While ordering the pizza,

    PizzaRequestContext context = factory.context();

    Does this make a trip to the server?

    4) PizzaLocator has methods such as: find, getById, create. Except for getPizzaDAO all override the base class (Locator) methods. Why is it different for getPizzaDAO?

    What if I want to update an entity? Can I define any business method of my choice in PizzaLocator and invoke it from PizzaRequestContext context? That, I feel is a simple use case. It is possible? Can you please include a non-standard method such as:

    changeIngrediant(Ingredient to, Ingredient from)
    changeIngrediantForAPizza(Pizza piz, Ingredient to, Ingredient from)
    changeIngrediantsForAPizza(Pizza piz, List to, List from)

    in your example and make the point more clear? Which one of the two methods would more sense?

    Can you please share the code for the project so, we can play with it and learn :-)

    Thanks a lot.

    Vin.

  7. Ok, I think, got my answers. Looked at the GWT docs and here are the answers to my own questions. I think these could be helpful to someone else who is trying to understand this framework. So, in the spirit of sharing :-)

    1) Can I invoke any method on the DAO, through RequestContext at the client end?

    Yes – The DAO needs to be made accessible through the Locator. PizzaDAO needs to implement all the methods
    in PizzaRequestContext.

    – as per the documentation:

    “The server-side service must implement each method defined in the service’s RequestContext interface even though the implementation does not formally implement the RequestContext interface.

    2) In the following method, what would be the clazz I would receive as parameter in your example:
    public class DaoLocator implements ServiceLocator {
    @Override
    public Object getInstance( Class clazz ) {
    // Create dao. Instance is cached by GWT so make sure the implementation is stateless.
    return new PizzaDao();
    }
    }

    Answer: PizzaDao (This is because @Service associates the RequestContext (PizzaRequestContext) with the Locator it needs to obtain a service object:

    @Service(value = PizzaDao.class, locator = DaoLocator.class)

    3) While ordering the pizza,
    PizzaRequestContext context = factory.context();
    Does this make a trip to the server?

    No.

    4) PizzaLocator has methods such as: find, getById, create. Except for getPizzaDAO all override the base class (Locator) methods. Why is it different for getPizzaDAO?

    I don’t think getPizzaDAO should be defined in PizzaLocator. This causes unnecessary confusion. PizzaLocator is not a service locator (DaoLocator is the service locator) and PizzaDAO need only be returned by the ServiceLocator.

    • Glad you like the tutorial.
      to 4) Agreed, the getPizzaDao() in the Locator class is misleading. The point is that you have to implement #findById() somehow. In a classic DAO approach, the DAO loads entities, that’s why its there. But I’m not happy with that either.

  8. Hi Stefan,
    Thank you for your tutorial, it was great but I have a hard time running my application even though I compile it successfully. I follow all the step but the unfortunately can’t launch the application. If you don’t mind, can I ask for the source code so that I can compare with my code. It will very a great help to me and I really appreciate it.

    Thanks

  9. Thank to Stefan and to all participants on this post.

  10. Hi Stefan, nice article. I’m playing with integration of JPA + Spring and GWT and I’m using same approach as you are describing. But I can’t solve how to inject dao (or entitymanager) into generic EntityLocator to be able to find entities. Everything else is working pretty well.

    • You could try sth like this:

      private static EntityManager getEntityManager() {
      SharedEntityManagerBean entityManagerBean = getBeanFromContext( SharedEntityManagerBean.class );
      return entityManagerBean.getObject();
      }

      private static T getBeanFromContext( Class clazz ) {
      HttpServletRequest request = RequestFactoryServlet.getThreadLocalRequest();
      ServletContext servletContext = request.getSession().getServletContext();
      ApplicationContext context = WebApplicationContextUtils.getWebApplicationContext( servletContext );
      return context.getBean( clazz );
      }

      You can do the lookup in the constructor and put the entityManager on a field to save the lookup time. Hope that helps, Stefan.

      • Yeah, I’ve found that I can do it same way like in SpringServiceLocator after my post :-). Thank you, working fine!

  11. Please Help !
    I have downloaded this project as zip , import the project “tutorial” in eclipse , when i try to run the program as Web Application it says , “select war folder ” …? whats the solution ?

    if i try to run it as “run on server” it just give me the Html page but the application never starts , I am struggling for more than a day now . please guide
    Thanks

  12. I have this error
    Infos: Unable to initialize a JSR 303 Bean Validator
    javax.validation.ValidationException: Unable to find a default provider

    It’s because we don’t save in database ?

    • Jose, that means that no implementation for the bean validation spec (javax.validation) can be found. You can solve this by adding the hibernate validator (as described above) to your class path.

  13. Hi Stefan,
    I googled for samples on GWT RequestFactory and I got into this page. I just started tinkling with it and i think i can lend a hand in helping at least one person here.

    Hi Junaid,
    I managed to make it work. At least it is asking me to order a pizza :) You can follow this link and download http://sourceforge.net/p/red1/small/33/tree/trunk/Stefan-GWT/

    I will proceed to trace through with the tutorial and will definitely offer some blogs or writeups. I will post here once that is done.

    • To those in Junaid’s situation,
      What i did above is that i did not import the project directly into Eclipse but the following:
      1. Create a new GWT project
      2. Copy over the files or content from here to the folders there.
      3. Tweak around until the app runs from Eclipse onto my browser
      4. Upload this into my repository

      You can check out the code and tweak a bit maybe to fit your environment but it should show up as it is in my Eclipse and browser. I will update further as this is only the second day and i have yet to work through this tutorial till the end. I have not ordered any pizza with it yet but i hope to soon. I want to put up some graphics to guide better and i put up a blog at http://red1empire.blogspot.com/2012/02/how-to-gwt-requestfactory-in-eclipse.html (hope it is ok with Stefan here).

  14. Hello, Stefan!

    I’m new to RequestFactory and to Spring. And I can’t get it working together. It works fine in this case:

    // in DaoLocator.java
    public class DaoLocator implements ServiceLocator {
    @Override
    public Object getInstance(Class clazz) {
    return new OrderStatusDAO();
    }
    }

    // in OrderStatusDAO.java
    public class OrderStatusDAO {

    // spring service, provided by my colleague
    private DictService dictService = (DictService) AppContext.getApplicationContext().getBean(“dictService”);

    public OrderStatus findById(Long id) {
    return dictService.findById(OrderStatus.class, id);
    }
    }

    But when i try to define ServiceLocator that looks up dao instance in Spring context as described in your post, i get errors

    // in DaoLocator.java
    public class DaoLocator implements ServiceLocator {
    @Override
    public Object getInstance(Class clazz) {
    HttpServletRequest request = RequestFactoryServlet.getThreadLocalRequest();
    ServletContext servletContext = request.getSession().getServletContext();
    ApplicationContext context = WebApplicationContextUtils.getWebApplicationContext( servletContext );
    return context.getBean( clazz );
    }
    }

    I get:
    org.springframework.beans.factory.NoSuchBeanDefinitionException: No unique bean of type [ru.smyt.demart.server.DAO.OrderStatusDAO] is defined: expected single bean but found 0:

    If I add @Component to my DAO:

    @Component
    public class OrderStatusDAO {

    }

    then I get null pointer on AppContext.getApplicationContext(). If I replace
    private DictService dictService = (DictService) AppContext.getApplicationContext().getBean(“dictService”);
    by @Autowired annotation:

    public class OrderStatusDAO {
    @Autowired
    private DictService dictService;

    }

    I get:
    Nested in org.springframework.beans.factory.BeanCreationException: Error creating bean with name ‘orderStatusDAO': Injection of autowired dependencies failed; nested exception is org.springframework.beans.factory.BeanCreationException: Could not autowire field: private ru.smyt.demart.core.service.DictService ru.smyt.demart.server.DAO.OrderStatusDAO.dictService; nested exception is org.springframework.beans.factory.BeanCreationException: Error creating bean with name ‘dictService': Scope ‘request’ is not active for the current thread; consider defining a scoped proxy for this bean if you intend to refer to it from a singleton; nested exception is java.lang.IllegalStateException: No thread-bound request found: Are you referring to request attributes outside of an actual web request, or processing a request outside of the originally receiving thread? If you are actually operating within a web request and still receive this message, your code is probably running outside of DispatcherServlet/DispatcherPortlet: In this case, use RequestContextListener or RequestContextFilter to expose the current request

    Could you tell me what’s wrong or show an example of your PizzaDao in Spring context?

    ps: sorry for my english

  15. Looks as if the bean ‘dictService’ is declared with Request scope. It is a good practice to write stateless DAOs which can be Singletons. Otherwise you will likely run into concurrency issues. So, removing the request scope definition makes the DAO a singleton and should help.

  16. Yes, you are right! Thank you, it works ok now! And thanks for great article!

  17. You example at github isn’t work. I made a pull request to fix this. Take a look if you want.

    Thanks.

    • Thanks, Carlos. I merged your changes into the master.

      • You’re welcome!

        You know some way to do all this using Guice in GWT 2.4?
        thanks

      • I wrote another article on using GIN for container managed RequestFactory instances.

        https://cleancodematters.wordpress.com/2011/05/19/gwt-requestfactory_with_gin/

        Although it comes with some more complexity it’s really worth to take a look at. There is actually no runtime overhead. However, not all guice features work, e.g. Multibindings are not supported yet.

      • I already see the article, its very good :)

        But I realy will like to use Guice, as a suggestion, you can do a post explaining what works and how to use it…

        I didn’t used RequestFactory in large projects yet.. so I do not have experience.. just run some little examples, and with this, I cant make it alll work…

        Thanks for your help, see ya.

  18. hi….thanks a lot for the above post,

    calling the server and retrieving ingredients at server is working fine…..however while returning a Pizza instance only allow me to access its properties and when i try to use ingredients property it always shows NULL pointer exception :(:(…..please help me…m stuck dere….

  19. Thanks you very much for this nice tutorial. But I faced a problem with fetching entities using requestfactory when the both the values are entity proxy. For example I have a entities user which have reference of Address which is also an entity. But when an User is fetched, the address field in the proxy is null.

    • Hi, this is probably a missing “with” parameter. For example, if the user class has a getter getAdresses() the request could look like this:
      context.findAll().with(“adresses”).fire(reiceiver)

  20. Thank you Stefan. Thank you very much. Now it works fine.

  21. Could you plz anyone show me how to edit an existing entity? I have a User entity with an Address entity. I want to edit
    the user information and also the address of user.

    • Hi Kusum,

      in this case you have to make the user object editable. Create a new RequestContext and call edit() on this new context. You get a new proxy object (don´t use the old one!), which you can edit an send to the server again.

      Sample:

      PizzaRequestContext newContext = myPizzaRequestFactory.context();
      User editableUser = newContext.edit(user);

      // now User and Address are editable
      …..

  22. ya, I know it but the requestfactory sends only edited value to the server the other properties of user is null. So i was unable to persist the edited User to database. Is there any technique by which we could send other properties to the server ie. the id of edited object is required in serverside code to update the database.

    • Usually the request factories cares about the ID and sends it “silently” over the wire.
      If you have a Locator-Class for your entities, then there the find()-method is called with the ID for the object, which was passed to the service. In the find()-method the requestfactory creates a “real” object out of the proxy object and perhaps you don´t set the id there?
      Do you use a Locator?

      In my case I request the EntityManager with the given id in the find()-method:

      // get the EntityManager
      // EntityManager em = [….]
      return em.find(User.class, id);

      Hope, that helps!

      Stefan

  23. hi
    is there any example of creating grid with GWT RequestFactory

  24. i’m not able to getting to work win spring, is there any special thing to add to web.xml, applicationContext.xml…?

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